小猫—救助之前请先观察

随着繁殖小猫季节的到来以及COVID-19造成的猫咪收留限制,Multnomah县动物服务中心 (Multnomah County Animal Services, MCAS) 编制了此份指南,以帮助Multnomah县的居民了解如果发现一窝小猫时应该怎么办,以及如何提供帮助。 

继续阅读,了解如何判断您发现的小猫是否真的需要帮助。


Multnomah县动物服务中心很快就会进入许多动物福利行业人士所称的“小猫季”,今年的小猫季亦将出现有趣的新挑战。与往年不同的是,由于受到COVID-19的影响,我们必须考虑整个社会的安全和福祉。因此,我们不得不决定限制未断奶的健康小猫的收容数量。

根据国家应对COVID-19危机的建议,MCAS将不再收容未断奶的健康小猫(无论是否有猫妈妈)。

我们想向公众保证,我们仍然在这里保护所有的动物,包括生病、受伤或处于即将面临危险的小猫。然而,无论猫妈妈是否在场,未断奶的健康小猫都被认为身体是健康的,因为有食物来源,所以不需要人为干预。MCAS编制了此份指南,以帮助Multnomah县的居民了解当他们发现一窝小猫时应该怎么办,以及如何提供帮助。

 

A kitten meowing in the brush

Alley Cat Allies

Kitten with URI
一只患有上呼吸道感染的小猫

If You Find Kittens

Find kittens guide 1
Find kittens guide 2 for 0 to 6 weeks
Find kittens guide 3 - 6 to 12 weeks
Find kittens guide 4- for 12 weeks or older

Download a Flowchart of What to Do

Download our flowchart of decisions to make if you find kittens.

What To Do If You Find Kittens Flowchart (PDF)

猫妈妈可能就藏在角落!

如果您听到花园里有喵喵声,并且发现了一窝小猫。您应该怎么办?为了给小猫带来最好的结果,您需要了解应该注意些什么和做出什么样的决定。 

春末秋初之间的时间被称为“小猫季” 在一年中的这个时候,未经驯服、户外放养的猫(包括自家猫和“社区”猫)会大量地繁殖小猫。在树篱下、门廊下或者在花园中发现一窝小猫或一只小猫,而妈妈却不见踪影,这种情况并不少见。 您应该怎么办?您的第一反应可能是把它们抱起来带回家,或者送到当地的收容所。但是请等一下,对小猫来说最好的办法是让它们留在原地。

等待和观察

猫妈妈会定期离开猫窝去寻找食物。如果您看到小猫没有猫妈妈在身边,猫妈妈很可能随时会回来。猫妈妈离开几个小时是常有的事。她也可能正在将小猫们带走—当人们在户外发现单独的小猫时,经常是这种情况。猫妈妈甚至可能会在安全的距离内观察您,等待您离开后才回到她的小窝,尤其是当她害怕或不适应与人类接触的时候。如果您从远处(至少35英尺)安静地观察,那么猫妈妈可能会在几个小时内返回猫窝。看看猫妈妈是否还在附近的一个简单方法(无需坐下来观察几个小时)是在猫窝周围撒上面粉或婴儿爽身粉。然后,您可以在一天中查看几次,看看有无爪印或扰动暗示猫妈妈已经回来了。

切勿将食物放在小猫附近引诱猫妈妈。猫妈妈知道食物会吸引其他的猫甚至更大的捕食者,所以她几乎总是故意让猫窝远离食物来源!

不要将断奶前的小猫从猫妈妈身边带走,这一点很重要。 没有猫妈妈的断奶前(4周以下)小猫很难照顾,死亡率也很高。人类需要日夜频繁地喂食猫奶的代用配方奶粉,而许多小猫如果没有了猫妈妈的照顾,就“无法茁壮成长”。

如果小猫看起来健康舒适并且小猫的年龄为4周及以下,您可以在安全距离内等上4-6个小时,等猫妈妈回来。如果小猫看起来年龄超过4周,可以让它们单独待上8-10小时。

评估小猫当前的健康状况:

当您在安全距离内观察时,注意观察小猫的身体状况和周围的环境。与看起来病怏怏的、身在泥泞的院子里的小猫相比,如果小猫看起来很健康而且身在相对安全的地方,在没有猫妈妈妈的情况下它们可以幸存的时间更长。 

  • 小猫的毛发看起来是否健康、饱满、蓬松?或者,它们身上是不是很脏?是不是生病了?眼睛是不是有很多眼屎?
  • 它们是不是在安静地睡觉?是不是挤在一堆?或者,它们是不是在叫唤?是不是高声尖叫?
  • 它们的身体是不是干燥的?或者,是不是湿润/浸湿的?

评估环境。小猫是否即将面临以下危险:

  • 暴雨?积水/洪水?
  • 野生动物?狗?
  • 交通—行人步行交通?自行车或汽车?

如果小猫看起来很健康,但未处在安全的地方,尝试把它们放在箱子里或类似的掩蔽处,位置尽可能地靠近您发现它们的地方,并继续观察猫妈妈是否出现。 

您需要了解,只要身体暖和,健康的小猫可以在不进食的情况下存活几个小时。新生小猫患低体温症的风险比饿死的风险大得多。在典型的 “小猫季”(春末至夏季时期),等待较长时间看看猫妈妈是否会回到猫窝通常是非常安全的做法。

仅当小猫即将面临危险或病重时方可把它们带走。

根据国内应对COVID-19危机的建议,MCAS将不再收留未断奶的健康小猫(无论其是否有猫妈妈的陪伴)。 

如果猫妈妈回来了……

如果猫妈妈回来了, 但其不喜欢与人相处, 而且该区域相对安全,让小猫和猫妈妈待在一起,直到它们断奶(5-6周)。不喜欢与人相处的猫在室内环境中往往会变得非常紧张,在它们对环境的控制力较弱的掩蔽处环境中这种压力甚至会加剧——尤其是当她有小猫要保护的时候。压力会导致疾病和攻击心理,并对猫妈妈照顾小猫的能力产生负面影响——压力甚至会导致猫妈妈排斥小猫。请不要将小猫从户外放养/不喜社交的猫妈妈身边带走。 

您可以监测环境,在安全的、受保护的区域为猫妈妈提供住所(给猫妈妈多布置几个住所是有帮助的,可以增加她使用住所的机会)和定期的食物……但食物和住所之间要保持一定的距离。猫妈妈会找到食物。但如果食物就在附近,她不会接受您布置的住所,因为她不想吸引其他猫或其他捕食者靠近位于她的巢穴附近的食物。

如果可能的话,小猫应该和猫妈妈待在一起至少6周。小猫不仅能从猫妈妈那里获得重要的营养物质和抗体,还能学会重要的社交技能。等到小猫6周龄时,可以安全地将小猫从猫妈妈身边带走,并努力培养它们的社交技能以便被领养。都市猫咪联盟 (Urban Cat League) 流浪联盟 (Alley Cat Allies) 都有关于如何培养小猫社交技能的优秀指南,包括视频链接! 

如果猫妈妈回来了,并且其喜欢与人相处,首先确保她不是别人家的室内养育/户外放养猫。不幸的是,仍然有许多有主的、未经驯服的猫可以在外面游荡。一些猫会选择在找到一处安静的地点之后在外面生小猫。人们可以在户外随时查看喜欢与人相处的猫妈妈们的情况。或者,如果您有一个空余的、安静的房间把她安置下来,并且您已经确认她没有主人,您便可将她和她的猫仔带到您家里。请参看下方如何养育产仔猫妈妈的方法指南和视频。

将小猫从一处移走

猫妈妈为她的猫仔提供了绝对最好的生存机会,所以您需要尽可能长时间地耐心等待和观察。 对小猫来说,最好的食物是猫妈妈的奶水。猫妈妈不仅为它们提供适当的均衡营养,还将为它们提供急需的抗体和免疫系统支持!小猫越大,在没有猫妈妈的情况下存活的时间就越长。 

如果猫妈妈不回来……

此处为小猫不同年龄阶段的图表,记录了新生小猫到8周及以上的成长过程,并提供了在不同阶段喂养和照顾小猫的综合指南。在将小猫从其生长环境带走之前,请仔细阅读指南并确保在没有猫妈妈的情况下您有喂养它们所需的用品和信息。如果您在喂养和照顾0-5周龄的遗孤小猫方面需要帮助,您可致电(503) 988-7387联系MCAS,以申请获得“奶瓶喂养新生小猫的入门工具包 (bottle baby starter kit)” 。

**请记住,在得到进一步通知之前,Multnomah县动物服务中心不会接受因受COVID-19影响而被遗弃的健康流浪动物。这其中包括健康的遗孤小猫和猫妈妈。如果您发现生病或受伤的猫和/或小猫,请先致电 (503) 988-7387然后再将其送至收容所。


小猫的其他资源和信息

喂养和照顾6-7周 

的遗孤小猫(致电 (503) 987-7387联系MCAS,申请食物/产仔援助)

照顾产仔的猫妈妈

照顾室内产仔、不喜社交的猫妈妈

记住,如果不喜社交的猫妈妈和小猫是在一个相对安全的地方,对它们而言最好的地方是户外。在小猫6周大之前,为它们提供户外住所、水并定期地喂食,那时将它们从猫妈妈身边带走会比较安全。或者,如果猫妈妈和您的关系变得融洽,可以考虑把一家的猫都带到家里来!

** 如果您实在需要引诱并将不喜社交的猫妈妈和她的猫仔带到家里来,有两种方法。将不喜社交的猫妈妈们关在笼子里喂养,或者将其安置在一个小的空房间里。您可以在下方找到关于这些方法的更多信息。 如果您在这方面存有疑问,请先将猫咪关进大笼子里。 

  • 小猫救助(小房间圈养)—对野生猫妈妈给予同情照顾。小房间里有很多容易找到的藏身之处,通常对那些在受到惊吓或变得焦虑时易产生反应(发出嘶嘶声和咆哮声、重拍/击打,甚至在极度恐惧时咬人)的猫咪来说效果更好。
  • 野猫为主(笼养)—为长期养育野猫而进行的猫窝布置通常笼养最适合想要躲藏起来的易受惊吓的猫,因为较小的空间能给它们安全感。一定记得给它们一个足够大的藏身空间,让猫妈妈和小猫舒适地筑窝。笼子的尺寸至少为42英寸长、28英寸宽、30英寸高。理想尺寸为48英寸长、30英寸宽、33英寸高英寸。

喂养和照顾8周以上的小猫 

(致电 (503) 987-7387联系MCAS,申请食物/产仔援助)

如何社会化(“驯服”)野生/胆怯的小猫

  • 都市猫咪联盟有关于驯服6个月大的野猫的详细信息(此类技术也适用于部分成年猫)。
    • 此处为2页概要以供参考,其总结了都市猫咪联盟 (Urban Cat League, UCL) 驯服野猫的过程

For Kittens Under Six Weeks Old

Wait for the mother cat to return

You want to help, and your first impulse may be to swoop up the tiny kittens and bring them straight to a shelter. However, a mother cat will periodically leave her nest to hunt for food. Please don’t take her babies!

If you see young kittens without their mother, it is likely she will return. The mother should return to the nest within a few hours- if you watch quietly from a distance (at least 35 feet).

Tips

  • Sprinkle flour or baby powder around the nest to see the paw prints of a mother cat who may be coming and going from her kittens. Check it throughout the day.
  • Don’t put food by the kittens: Do NOT place food near the kittens to lure mom. Mom almost always purposely hides her litter away from food sources as she knows that food will attract other cats and even bigger predators!
  • Continuing to wait for mom if the kittens are warm, clean, plump, and quiet. These are indicators that they were recently groomed, fed, and warmed, and are therefore comfortable and not hungry.

Assess the kittens’ apparent health

While you are observing from a safe distance, pay attention to the kittens’ appearance and their surroundings. If the kittens appear healthy, and in a relatively safe location, they can survive without mom longer than if they are sickly, and in the middle of a muddy yard. 

  • Does their fur look healthy, full and fluffy? OR Are they dirty? Sickly? Eyes crusty?
  • Are they sleeping quietly? In a heap? OR Are they crying? Squalling?
  • Are they dry? OR Are they wet/soaked?

Assess the environment

Are the kittens in IMMEDIATE danger from:

  • Heavy rain? Standing water/flooding?
  • Wild animals? Dogs?
  • Traffic – pedestrian foot traffic? Bicycles or cars?

If the kittens appear healthy, but are not in a safe location, try placing them in a box or similar shelter in a safe spot as close to where you found them as possible, and continue to observe for mom. 

Know that healthy kittens can survive several hours without food as long as they are warm. Neonatal kittens are much more at risk of hypothermia than they are of starvation. During typical ‘kitten season’ (during the late spring and summer months), waiting a longer time to see if mom will come back is usually very safe.

When the mother returns

If the kittens are less than six weeks old, leave them with their mother unless they appear sick, injured, or if their safety is threatened by their environment (see above).

When you do see the mother cat, encourage her to approach you - entice her with wet food, deli meat, etc - to see if she is social and friendly. If she is comfortable with people, she may in fact be someone's lost or outdoor pet. You can report the cat and her litter as "found" on the MCAS found pet directory, and follow other tips and instructions (see Resources below) of how to care for the cats or find an owner. 

If the mother doesn't appear to be comfortable around people, you can report the cat and her litter as "found" on the MCAS found pet directory, and follow other tips and instructions on how to find an owner, and how to care for the cats - either inside or outside (see Resources below). 

If the mother doesn't return

It’s important for their chances of survival to not take kittens away from their mother if they haven’t been weaned from her milk. Pre-weaned kittens (under 6 weeks) without a mother are very difficult to care for and have a high mortality rate. They require frequent feedings of kitten milk replacer formula day and night, and many "fail to thrive" without the care of their mother, even with all necessary veterinary care and experienced foster volunteers.

Only bring the kittens to the shelter if you are 100% certain the mother is not returning.

If the mother hasn’t returned and the kittens are hungry, loud, or soiled:

  • You can care for the kitten(s) in your home (MCAS has kitten care packs available, see resources below). If kittens are over six weeks old, be sure to post a found report on our website.

-OR-

  • If you are unable to care for the kittens yourself, please contact MCAS immediately for help. Call 503-988-7387.

For Kittens Six Weeks to Twelve Weeks Old

Kittens 6-12 weeks old are at the ideal age to be socialized and adopted. You can bring them in a carrier with a towel or blanket to MCAS.

You can also bring kittens to our partners in the community:

Bringing the kittens to a shelter will ensure that they are spayed and neutered, and can find caring homes, and won’t contribute to community cat breeding and overpopulation.

For Kittens Twelve Weeks to Six Months Old

Kittens 12 weeks to 6 months old who are not social and become extremely frightened and/or aggression when handled by people may be difficult to catch without a live-release trap, and have passed an important window when they can be easily and effectively socialized. The best thing to do is consider Trap, Neuter / Spay, and Return (TNR) them to where they were found through Feral Cat Coalition of Oregon (FCCO).

Learn about TNR and resources for community cats


 

Resources

Read this information from Oakland Animal Services on how to assess the situation if you do find a litter

Feeding and Caring For Orphan Kittens 0-4 weeks 

(Contact MCAS at (503) 987-7387 to request a bottle-baby starter kit):

Feeding and Caring For Orphan Kittens 5 - 7 weeks 

(Contact MCAS at (503) 987-7387 to request food/litter assistance):

Caring for Social Mom Cats with Litters

Caring for Unsocial Mom Cats with Litters

 

The first option, if the unsocial mom and litter are in a relatively safe location, is to offer outdoor shelter, water, and regular feedings until kittens are about 6-weeks. At 6-weeks it’s safer to remove from mom. Or, if mom has become more social with you, consider bringing the whole family inside! Urban Cat League - guide for socializing outdoor/feral kittens
 

  • Tiny Kittens Rescue (small room confinement) - Compassionate Foster Care for Feral Moms. Small rooms with plenty of easily-accessible hiding options generally work better for cats that become reactive when they are scared or anxious (hissing, growling, swatting/striking, even biting when extremely frightened).
     
  • Feral Cat Focus (cage confinement) - Feral Cat Set-up for Long-term Fosters. Cage confinement generally works best for fearful cats that want to hide, as the smaller space gives them a sense of security. Always remember to give them a hiding space that is big enough for mom and litter to comfortably nest. Cages should be at least 42L x 28W x 30H inches. 48L x 30W x 33H inches is ideal.

If you need further assistance, contact the shelter at (503) 988-7387

Feeding and Caring For Kittens 8+ weeks 

(Contact MCAS at (503) 987-7387 to request food/litter assistance)

How to Socialize ("tame") Feral/scared Kittens

  • Urban Cat League has wonderful and comprehensive information on taming feral/scared kittens up to 6-months of age (these techniques can also work with some adult cats)

What is a Community Cat?

“Community cat” is an umbrella definition that includes any un-owned cat. These cats may be “feral” (un-socialized) or friendly, may have been born into the wild or may be lost or abandoned pet cats. Some community cats are routinely fed by one or more community members, while others survive without human intervention. Whatever a cat’s individual circumstances, the term “community cat” reflects the reality that for these cats, “home” is within the community rather than in an individual household.